Chapter 15: Machine learning¶

Robert Johansson

Source code listings for Numerical Python - Scientific Computing and Data Science Applications with Numpy, SciPy and Matplotlib (ISBN 978-1-484242-45-2).

In [1]:
from sklearn import datasets
from sklearn import model_selection
from sklearn import linear_model
from sklearn import metrics
from sklearn import tree
from sklearn import neighbors
from sklearn import svm
from sklearn import ensemble
from sklearn import cluster

In [2]:
%matplotlib inline
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

In [3]:
import numpy as np

In [4]:
import seaborn as sns


Built in datasets¶

In [5]:
datasets.load_boston

Out[5]:
<function sklearn.datasets.base.load_boston(return_X_y=False)>
In [6]:
datasets.fetch_california_housing

Out[6]:
<function sklearn.datasets.california_housing.fetch_california_housing(data_home=None, download_if_missing=True, return_X_y=False)>
In [7]:
datasets.make_regression

Out[7]:
<function sklearn.datasets.samples_generator.make_regression(n_samples=100, n_features=100, n_informative=10, n_targets=1, bias=0.0, effective_rank=None, tail_strength=0.5, noise=0.0, shuffle=True, coef=False, random_state=None)>

Regression¶

In [8]:
np.random.seed(123)

In [9]:
X_all, y_all = datasets.make_regression(n_samples=50, n_features=50, n_informative=10) #, noise=2.5)

In [10]:
X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = model_selection.train_test_split(X_all, y_all, train_size=0.5)

/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/model_selection/_split.py:2179: FutureWarning: From version 0.21, test_size will always complement train_size unless both are specified.
FutureWarning)

In [11]:
X_train.shape, y_train.shape

Out[11]:
((25, 50), (25,))
In [12]:
X_test.shape, y_test.shape

Out[12]:
((25, 50), (25,))
In [13]:
model = linear_model.LinearRegression()

In [14]:
model.fit(X_train, y_train)

Out[14]:
LinearRegression(copy_X=True, fit_intercept=True, n_jobs=None,
normalize=False)
In [15]:
def sse(resid):
return sum(resid**2)

In [16]:
resid_train = y_train - model.predict(X_train)
sse_train = sse(resid_train)
sse_train

Out[16]:
1.469187171658096e-24
In [17]:
resid_test = y_test - model.predict(X_test)
sse_test = sse(resid_train)
sse_test

Out[17]:
1.469187171658096e-24
In [18]:
model.score(X_train, y_train)

Out[18]:
1.0
In [19]:
model.score(X_test, y_test)

Out[19]:
0.31407400675201735
In [20]:
def plot_residuals_and_coeff(resid_train, resid_test, coeff):
fig, axes = plt.subplots(1, 3, figsize=(12, 3))
axes[0].bar(np.arange(len(resid_train)), resid_train)
axes[0].set_xlabel("sample number")
axes[0].set_ylabel("residual")
axes[0].set_title("training data")
axes[1].bar(np.arange(len(resid_test)), resid_test)
axes[1].set_xlabel("sample number")
axes[1].set_ylabel("residual")
axes[1].set_title("testing data")
axes[2].bar(np.arange(len(coeff)), coeff)
axes[2].set_xlabel("coefficient number")
axes[2].set_ylabel("coefficient")
fig.tight_layout()
return fig, axes

In [21]:
fig, ax = plot_residuals_and_coeff(resid_train, resid_test, model.coef_)
fig.savefig("ch15-regression-ols.pdf")

In [22]:
model = linear_model.Ridge() #alpha=2.5)

In [23]:
model.fit(X_train, y_train)

Out[23]:
Ridge(alpha=1.0, copy_X=True, fit_intercept=True, max_iter=None,
normalize=False, random_state=None, solver='auto', tol=0.001)
In [24]:
resid_train = y_train - model.predict(X_train)
sse_train = sum(resid_train**2)
sse_train

Out[24]:
178.50695164950986
In [25]:
resid_test = y_test - model.predict(X_test)
sse_test = sum(resid_test**2)
sse_test

Out[25]:
212737.00160105852
In [26]:
model.score(X_train, y_train), model.score(X_test, y_test)

Out[26]:
(0.9994595515017335, 0.31670332736075457)
In [27]:
fig, ax = plot_residuals_and_coeff(resid_train, resid_test, model.coef_)
fig.savefig("ch15-regression-ridge.pdf")

In [28]:
model = linear_model.Lasso(alpha=1.0)

In [29]:
model.fit(X_train, y_train)

Out[29]:
Lasso(alpha=1.0, copy_X=True, fit_intercept=True, max_iter=1000,
normalize=False, positive=False, precompute=False, random_state=None,
selection='cyclic', tol=0.0001, warm_start=False)
In [30]:
resid_train = y_train - model.predict(X_train)
sse_train = sse(resid_train)
sse_train

Out[30]:
309.7497138953223
In [31]:
resid_test = y_test - model.predict(X_test)
sse_test = sse(resid_test)
sse_test

Out[31]:
1489.1176065002487
In [32]:
fig, ax = plot_residuals_and_coeff(resid_train, resid_test, model.coef_)
fig.savefig("ch15-regression-lasso.pdf")

In [33]:
alphas = np.logspace(-4, 2, 100)

In [34]:
coeffs = np.zeros((len(alphas), X_train.shape[1]))
sse_train = np.zeros_like(alphas)
sse_test = np.zeros_like(alphas)

for n, alpha in enumerate(alphas):
model = linear_model.Lasso(alpha=alpha)
model.fit(X_train, y_train)
coeffs[n, :] = model.coef_
resid = y_train - model.predict(X_train)
sse_train[n] = sum(resid**2)
resid = y_test - model.predict(X_test)
sse_test[n] = sum(resid**2)

/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/linear_model/coordinate_descent.py:492: ConvergenceWarning: Objective did not converge. You might want to increase the number of iterations. Fitting data with very small alpha may cause precision problems.
ConvergenceWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/linear_model/coordinate_descent.py:492: ConvergenceWarning: Objective did not converge. You might want to increase the number of iterations. Fitting data with very small alpha may cause precision problems.
ConvergenceWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/linear_model/coordinate_descent.py:492: ConvergenceWarning: Objective did not converge. You might want to increase the number of iterations. Fitting data with very small alpha may cause precision problems.
ConvergenceWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/linear_model/coordinate_descent.py:492: ConvergenceWarning: Objective did not converge. You might want to increase the number of iterations. Fitting data with very small alpha may cause precision problems.
ConvergenceWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/linear_model/coordinate_descent.py:492: ConvergenceWarning: Objective did not converge. You might want to increase the number of iterations. Fitting data with very small alpha may cause precision problems.
ConvergenceWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/linear_model/coordinate_descent.py:492: ConvergenceWarning: Objective did not converge. You might want to increase the number of iterations. Fitting data with very small alpha may cause precision problems.
ConvergenceWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/linear_model/coordinate_descent.py:492: ConvergenceWarning: Objective did not converge. You might want to increase the number of iterations. Fitting data with very small alpha may cause precision problems.
ConvergenceWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/linear_model/coordinate_descent.py:492: ConvergenceWarning: Objective did not converge. You might want to increase the number of iterations. Fitting data with very small alpha may cause precision problems.
ConvergenceWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/linear_model/coordinate_descent.py:492: ConvergenceWarning: Objective did not converge. You might want to increase the number of iterations. Fitting data with very small alpha may cause precision problems.
ConvergenceWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/linear_model/coordinate_descent.py:492: ConvergenceWarning: Objective did not converge. You might want to increase the number of iterations. Fitting data with very small alpha may cause precision problems.
ConvergenceWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/linear_model/coordinate_descent.py:492: ConvergenceWarning: Objective did not converge. You might want to increase the number of iterations. Fitting data with very small alpha may cause precision problems.
ConvergenceWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/linear_model/coordinate_descent.py:492: ConvergenceWarning: Objective did not converge. You might want to increase the number of iterations. Fitting data with very small alpha may cause precision problems.
ConvergenceWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/linear_model/coordinate_descent.py:492: ConvergenceWarning: Objective did not converge. You might want to increase the number of iterations. Fitting data with very small alpha may cause precision problems.
ConvergenceWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/linear_model/coordinate_descent.py:492: ConvergenceWarning: Objective did not converge. You might want to increase the number of iterations. Fitting data with very small alpha may cause precision problems.
ConvergenceWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/linear_model/coordinate_descent.py:492: ConvergenceWarning: Objective did not converge. You might want to increase the number of iterations. Fitting data with very small alpha may cause precision problems.
ConvergenceWarning)

In [35]:
fig, axes = plt.subplots(1, 2, figsize=(12, 4), sharex=True)

for n in range(coeffs.shape[1]):
axes[0].plot(np.log10(alphas), coeffs[:, n], color='k', lw=0.5)

axes[1].semilogy(np.log10(alphas), sse_train, label="train")
axes[1].semilogy(np.log10(alphas), sse_test, label="test")
axes[1].legend(loc=0)

axes[0].set_xlabel(r"${\log_{10}}\alpha$", fontsize=18)
axes[0].set_ylabel(r"coefficients", fontsize=18)
axes[1].set_xlabel(r"${\log_{10}}\alpha$", fontsize=18)
axes[1].set_ylabel(r"sse", fontsize=18)
fig.tight_layout()
fig.savefig("ch15-regression-lasso-vs-alpha.pdf")

In [36]:
model = linear_model.LassoCV()

In [37]:
model.fit(X_all, y_all)

/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/model_selection/_split.py:2053: FutureWarning: You should specify a value for 'cv' instead of relying on the default value. The default value will change from 3 to 5 in version 0.22.
warnings.warn(CV_WARNING, FutureWarning)

Out[37]:
LassoCV(alphas=None, copy_X=True, cv='warn', eps=0.001, fit_intercept=True,
max_iter=1000, n_alphas=100, n_jobs=None, normalize=False,
positive=False, precompute='auto', random_state=None,
selection='cyclic', tol=0.0001, verbose=False)
In [38]:
model.alpha_

Out[38]:
0.06559238747534718
In [39]:
resid_train = y_train - model.predict(X_train)
sse_train = sse(resid_train)
sse_train

Out[39]:
1.5450589323146204
In [40]:
resid_test = y_test - model.predict(X_test)
sse_test = sse(resid_test)
sse_test

Out[40]:
1.5321417406216717
In [41]:
model.score(X_train, y_train), model.score(X_test, y_test)

Out[41]:
(0.9999953221722068, 0.9999950788657098)
In [42]:
fig, ax = plot_residuals_and_coeff(resid_train, resid_test, model.coef_)
fig.savefig("ch15-regression-lasso-cv.pdf")

In [43]:
model = linear_model.ElasticNetCV()

In [44]:
model.fit(X_all, y_all)

/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/model_selection/_split.py:2053: FutureWarning: You should specify a value for 'cv' instead of relying on the default value. The default value will change from 3 to 5 in version 0.22.
warnings.warn(CV_WARNING, FutureWarning)

Out[44]:
ElasticNetCV(alphas=None, copy_X=True, cv='warn', eps=0.001,
fit_intercept=True, l1_ratio=0.5, max_iter=1000, n_alphas=100,
n_jobs=None, normalize=False, positive=False, precompute='auto',
random_state=None, selection='cyclic', tol=0.0001, verbose=0)
In [45]:
model.alpha_

Out[45]:
0.13118477495069433
In [46]:
model.l1_ratio

Out[46]:
0.5
In [47]:
resid_train = y_train - model.predict(X_train)
sse_train = sum(resid_train**2)
sse_train

Out[47]:
2183.8391729391196
In [48]:
resid_test = y_test - model.predict(X_test)
sse_test = sum(resid_test**2)
sse_test

Out[48]:
2650.050446338252
In [49]:
model.score(X_train, y_train), model.score(X_test, y_test)

Out[49]:
(0.9933881981034111, 0.9914882195448783)
In [50]:
fig, ax = plot_residuals_and_coeff(resid_train, resid_test, model.coef_)
fig.savefig("ch15-regression-elastic-net-cv.pdf")


Classification¶

In [51]:
iris = datasets.load_iris()

In [52]:
type(iris)

Out[52]:
sklearn.utils.Bunch
In [53]:
iris.target_names

Out[53]:
array(['setosa', 'versicolor', 'virginica'], dtype='<U10')
In [54]:
iris.feature_names

Out[54]:
['sepal length (cm)',
'sepal width (cm)',
'petal length (cm)',
'petal width (cm)']
In [55]:
iris.data.shape

Out[55]:
(150, 4)
In [56]:
iris.target.shape

Out[56]:
(150,)
In [57]:
# print(iris['DESCR'])

In [58]:
X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = model_selection.train_test_split(iris.data, iris.target, train_size=0.7)

/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/model_selection/_split.py:2179: FutureWarning: From version 0.21, test_size will always complement train_size unless both are specified.
FutureWarning)

In [59]:
classifier = linear_model.LogisticRegression()

In [60]:
classifier.fit(X_train, y_train)

/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/linear_model/logistic.py:433: FutureWarning: Default solver will be changed to 'lbfgs' in 0.22. Specify a solver to silence this warning.
FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/linear_model/logistic.py:460: FutureWarning: Default multi_class will be changed to 'auto' in 0.22. Specify the multi_class option to silence this warning.
"this warning.", FutureWarning)

Out[60]:
LogisticRegression(C=1.0, class_weight=None, dual=False, fit_intercept=True,
intercept_scaling=1, max_iter=100, multi_class='warn',
n_jobs=None, penalty='l2', random_state=None, solver='warn',
tol=0.0001, verbose=0, warm_start=False)
In [61]:
y_test_pred = classifier.predict(X_test)

In [62]:
print(metrics.classification_report(y_test, y_test_pred))

              precision    recall  f1-score   support

0       1.00      1.00      1.00        16
1       1.00      0.76      0.87        17
2       0.75      1.00      0.86        12

micro avg       0.91      0.91      0.91        45
macro avg       0.92      0.92      0.91        45
weighted avg       0.93      0.91      0.91        45


In [63]:
np.bincount(y_test)

Out[63]:
array([16, 17, 12])
In [64]:
metrics.confusion_matrix(y_test, y_test_pred)

Out[64]:
array([[16,  0,  0],
[ 0, 13,  4],
[ 0,  0, 12]])
In [65]:
classifier = tree.DecisionTreeClassifier()
classifier.fit(X_train, y_train)
y_test_pred = classifier.predict(X_test)
metrics.confusion_matrix(y_test, y_test_pred)

Out[65]:
array([[16,  0,  0],
[ 0, 12,  5],
[ 0,  0, 12]])
In [66]:
classifier = neighbors.KNeighborsClassifier()
classifier.fit(X_train, y_train)
y_test_pred = classifier.predict(X_test)
metrics.confusion_matrix(y_test, y_test_pred)

Out[66]:
array([[16,  0,  0],
[ 0, 15,  2],
[ 0,  0, 12]])
In [67]:
classifier = svm.SVC()
classifier.fit(X_train, y_train)
y_test_pred = classifier.predict(X_test)
metrics.confusion_matrix(y_test, y_test_pred)

/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/svm/base.py:196: FutureWarning: The default value of gamma will change from 'auto' to 'scale' in version 0.22 to account better for unscaled features. Set gamma explicitly to 'auto' or 'scale' to avoid this warning.
"avoid this warning.", FutureWarning)

Out[67]:
array([[16,  0,  0],
[ 0, 15,  2],
[ 0,  0, 12]])
In [68]:
classifier = ensemble.RandomForestClassifier()
classifier.fit(X_train, y_train)
y_test_pred = classifier.predict(X_test)
metrics.confusion_matrix(y_test, y_test_pred)

/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/ensemble/forest.py:246: FutureWarning: The default value of n_estimators will change from 10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.
"10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.", FutureWarning)

Out[68]:
array([[16,  0,  0],
[ 0, 16,  1],
[ 0,  0, 12]])
In [69]:
train_size_vec = np.linspace(0.1, 0.9, 30)

In [70]:
classifiers = [tree.DecisionTreeClassifier,
neighbors.KNeighborsClassifier,
svm.SVC,
ensemble.RandomForestClassifier
]

In [71]:
cm_diags = np.zeros((3, len(train_size_vec), len(classifiers)), dtype=float)

In [72]:
for n, train_size in enumerate(train_size_vec):
X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = \
model_selection.train_test_split(iris.data, iris.target, train_size=train_size)

for m, Classifier in enumerate(classifiers):
classifier = Classifier()
classifier.fit(X_train, y_train)
y_test_pred = classifier.predict(X_test)
cm_diags[:, n, m] = metrics.confusion_matrix(y_test, y_test_pred).diagonal()
cm_diags[:, n, m] /= np.bincount(y_test)

/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/model_selection/_split.py:2179: FutureWarning: From version 0.21, test_size will always complement train_size unless both are specified.
FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/svm/base.py:196: FutureWarning: The default value of gamma will change from 'auto' to 'scale' in version 0.22 to account better for unscaled features. Set gamma explicitly to 'auto' or 'scale' to avoid this warning.
"avoid this warning.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/ensemble/forest.py:246: FutureWarning: The default value of n_estimators will change from 10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.
"10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/model_selection/_split.py:2179: FutureWarning: From version 0.21, test_size will always complement train_size unless both are specified.
FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/svm/base.py:196: FutureWarning: The default value of gamma will change from 'auto' to 'scale' in version 0.22 to account better for unscaled features. Set gamma explicitly to 'auto' or 'scale' to avoid this warning.
"avoid this warning.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/ensemble/forest.py:246: FutureWarning: The default value of n_estimators will change from 10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.
"10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/model_selection/_split.py:2179: FutureWarning: From version 0.21, test_size will always complement train_size unless both are specified.
FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/svm/base.py:196: FutureWarning: The default value of gamma will change from 'auto' to 'scale' in version 0.22 to account better for unscaled features. Set gamma explicitly to 'auto' or 'scale' to avoid this warning.
"avoid this warning.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/ensemble/forest.py:246: FutureWarning: The default value of n_estimators will change from 10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.
"10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/model_selection/_split.py:2179: FutureWarning: From version 0.21, test_size will always complement train_size unless both are specified.
FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/svm/base.py:196: FutureWarning: The default value of gamma will change from 'auto' to 'scale' in version 0.22 to account better for unscaled features. Set gamma explicitly to 'auto' or 'scale' to avoid this warning.
"avoid this warning.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/ensemble/forest.py:246: FutureWarning: The default value of n_estimators will change from 10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.
"10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/model_selection/_split.py:2179: FutureWarning: From version 0.21, test_size will always complement train_size unless both are specified.
FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/svm/base.py:196: FutureWarning: The default value of gamma will change from 'auto' to 'scale' in version 0.22 to account better for unscaled features. Set gamma explicitly to 'auto' or 'scale' to avoid this warning.
"avoid this warning.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/ensemble/forest.py:246: FutureWarning: The default value of n_estimators will change from 10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.
"10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/model_selection/_split.py:2179: FutureWarning: From version 0.21, test_size will always complement train_size unless both are specified.
FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/svm/base.py:196: FutureWarning: The default value of gamma will change from 'auto' to 'scale' in version 0.22 to account better for unscaled features. Set gamma explicitly to 'auto' or 'scale' to avoid this warning.
"avoid this warning.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/ensemble/forest.py:246: FutureWarning: The default value of n_estimators will change from 10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.
"10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/model_selection/_split.py:2179: FutureWarning: From version 0.21, test_size will always complement train_size unless both are specified.
FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/svm/base.py:196: FutureWarning: The default value of gamma will change from 'auto' to 'scale' in version 0.22 to account better for unscaled features. Set gamma explicitly to 'auto' or 'scale' to avoid this warning.
"avoid this warning.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/ensemble/forest.py:246: FutureWarning: The default value of n_estimators will change from 10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.
"10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/model_selection/_split.py:2179: FutureWarning: From version 0.21, test_size will always complement train_size unless both are specified.
FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/svm/base.py:196: FutureWarning: The default value of gamma will change from 'auto' to 'scale' in version 0.22 to account better for unscaled features. Set gamma explicitly to 'auto' or 'scale' to avoid this warning.
"avoid this warning.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/ensemble/forest.py:246: FutureWarning: The default value of n_estimators will change from 10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.
"10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/model_selection/_split.py:2179: FutureWarning: From version 0.21, test_size will always complement train_size unless both are specified.
FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/svm/base.py:196: FutureWarning: The default value of gamma will change from 'auto' to 'scale' in version 0.22 to account better for unscaled features. Set gamma explicitly to 'auto' or 'scale' to avoid this warning.
"avoid this warning.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/ensemble/forest.py:246: FutureWarning: The default value of n_estimators will change from 10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.
"10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/model_selection/_split.py:2179: FutureWarning: From version 0.21, test_size will always complement train_size unless both are specified.
FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/svm/base.py:196: FutureWarning: The default value of gamma will change from 'auto' to 'scale' in version 0.22 to account better for unscaled features. Set gamma explicitly to 'auto' or 'scale' to avoid this warning.
"avoid this warning.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/ensemble/forest.py:246: FutureWarning: The default value of n_estimators will change from 10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.
"10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/model_selection/_split.py:2179: FutureWarning: From version 0.21, test_size will always complement train_size unless both are specified.
FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/svm/base.py:196: FutureWarning: The default value of gamma will change from 'auto' to 'scale' in version 0.22 to account better for unscaled features. Set gamma explicitly to 'auto' or 'scale' to avoid this warning.
"avoid this warning.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/ensemble/forest.py:246: FutureWarning: The default value of n_estimators will change from 10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.
"10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/model_selection/_split.py:2179: FutureWarning: From version 0.21, test_size will always complement train_size unless both are specified.
FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/svm/base.py:196: FutureWarning: The default value of gamma will change from 'auto' to 'scale' in version 0.22 to account better for unscaled features. Set gamma explicitly to 'auto' or 'scale' to avoid this warning.
"avoid this warning.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/ensemble/forest.py:246: FutureWarning: The default value of n_estimators will change from 10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.
"10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/model_selection/_split.py:2179: FutureWarning: From version 0.21, test_size will always complement train_size unless both are specified.
FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/svm/base.py:196: FutureWarning: The default value of gamma will change from 'auto' to 'scale' in version 0.22 to account better for unscaled features. Set gamma explicitly to 'auto' or 'scale' to avoid this warning.
"avoid this warning.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/ensemble/forest.py:246: FutureWarning: The default value of n_estimators will change from 10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.
"10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/model_selection/_split.py:2179: FutureWarning: From version 0.21, test_size will always complement train_size unless both are specified.
FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/svm/base.py:196: FutureWarning: The default value of gamma will change from 'auto' to 'scale' in version 0.22 to account better for unscaled features. Set gamma explicitly to 'auto' or 'scale' to avoid this warning.
"avoid this warning.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/ensemble/forest.py:246: FutureWarning: The default value of n_estimators will change from 10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.
"10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/model_selection/_split.py:2179: FutureWarning: From version 0.21, test_size will always complement train_size unless both are specified.
FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/svm/base.py:196: FutureWarning: The default value of gamma will change from 'auto' to 'scale' in version 0.22 to account better for unscaled features. Set gamma explicitly to 'auto' or 'scale' to avoid this warning.
"avoid this warning.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/ensemble/forest.py:246: FutureWarning: The default value of n_estimators will change from 10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.
"10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/model_selection/_split.py:2179: FutureWarning: From version 0.21, test_size will always complement train_size unless both are specified.
FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/svm/base.py:196: FutureWarning: The default value of gamma will change from 'auto' to 'scale' in version 0.22 to account better for unscaled features. Set gamma explicitly to 'auto' or 'scale' to avoid this warning.
"avoid this warning.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/ensemble/forest.py:246: FutureWarning: The default value of n_estimators will change from 10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.
"10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/model_selection/_split.py:2179: FutureWarning: From version 0.21, test_size will always complement train_size unless both are specified.
FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/svm/base.py:196: FutureWarning: The default value of gamma will change from 'auto' to 'scale' in version 0.22 to account better for unscaled features. Set gamma explicitly to 'auto' or 'scale' to avoid this warning.
"avoid this warning.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/ensemble/forest.py:246: FutureWarning: The default value of n_estimators will change from 10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.
"10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/model_selection/_split.py:2179: FutureWarning: From version 0.21, test_size will always complement train_size unless both are specified.
FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/svm/base.py:196: FutureWarning: The default value of gamma will change from 'auto' to 'scale' in version 0.22 to account better for unscaled features. Set gamma explicitly to 'auto' or 'scale' to avoid this warning.
"avoid this warning.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/ensemble/forest.py:246: FutureWarning: The default value of n_estimators will change from 10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.
"10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/model_selection/_split.py:2179: FutureWarning: From version 0.21, test_size will always complement train_size unless both are specified.
FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/svm/base.py:196: FutureWarning: The default value of gamma will change from 'auto' to 'scale' in version 0.22 to account better for unscaled features. Set gamma explicitly to 'auto' or 'scale' to avoid this warning.
"avoid this warning.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/ensemble/forest.py:246: FutureWarning: The default value of n_estimators will change from 10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.
"10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/model_selection/_split.py:2179: FutureWarning: From version 0.21, test_size will always complement train_size unless both are specified.
FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/svm/base.py:196: FutureWarning: The default value of gamma will change from 'auto' to 'scale' in version 0.22 to account better for unscaled features. Set gamma explicitly to 'auto' or 'scale' to avoid this warning.
"avoid this warning.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/ensemble/forest.py:246: FutureWarning: The default value of n_estimators will change from 10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.
"10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/model_selection/_split.py:2179: FutureWarning: From version 0.21, test_size will always complement train_size unless both are specified.
FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/svm/base.py:196: FutureWarning: The default value of gamma will change from 'auto' to 'scale' in version 0.22 to account better for unscaled features. Set gamma explicitly to 'auto' or 'scale' to avoid this warning.
"avoid this warning.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/ensemble/forest.py:246: FutureWarning: The default value of n_estimators will change from 10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.
"10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/model_selection/_split.py:2179: FutureWarning: From version 0.21, test_size will always complement train_size unless both are specified.
FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/svm/base.py:196: FutureWarning: The default value of gamma will change from 'auto' to 'scale' in version 0.22 to account better for unscaled features. Set gamma explicitly to 'auto' or 'scale' to avoid this warning.
"avoid this warning.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/ensemble/forest.py:246: FutureWarning: The default value of n_estimators will change from 10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.
"10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/model_selection/_split.py:2179: FutureWarning: From version 0.21, test_size will always complement train_size unless both are specified.
FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/svm/base.py:196: FutureWarning: The default value of gamma will change from 'auto' to 'scale' in version 0.22 to account better for unscaled features. Set gamma explicitly to 'auto' or 'scale' to avoid this warning.
"avoid this warning.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/ensemble/forest.py:246: FutureWarning: The default value of n_estimators will change from 10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.
"10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/model_selection/_split.py:2179: FutureWarning: From version 0.21, test_size will always complement train_size unless both are specified.
FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/svm/base.py:196: FutureWarning: The default value of gamma will change from 'auto' to 'scale' in version 0.22 to account better for unscaled features. Set gamma explicitly to 'auto' or 'scale' to avoid this warning.
"avoid this warning.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/ensemble/forest.py:246: FutureWarning: The default value of n_estimators will change from 10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.
"10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/model_selection/_split.py:2179: FutureWarning: From version 0.21, test_size will always complement train_size unless both are specified.
FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/svm/base.py:196: FutureWarning: The default value of gamma will change from 'auto' to 'scale' in version 0.22 to account better for unscaled features. Set gamma explicitly to 'auto' or 'scale' to avoid this warning.
"avoid this warning.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/ensemble/forest.py:246: FutureWarning: The default value of n_estimators will change from 10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.
"10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/model_selection/_split.py:2179: FutureWarning: From version 0.21, test_size will always complement train_size unless both are specified.
FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/svm/base.py:196: FutureWarning: The default value of gamma will change from 'auto' to 'scale' in version 0.22 to account better for unscaled features. Set gamma explicitly to 'auto' or 'scale' to avoid this warning.
"avoid this warning.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/ensemble/forest.py:246: FutureWarning: The default value of n_estimators will change from 10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.
"10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/model_selection/_split.py:2179: FutureWarning: From version 0.21, test_size will always complement train_size unless both are specified.
FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/svm/base.py:196: FutureWarning: The default value of gamma will change from 'auto' to 'scale' in version 0.22 to account better for unscaled features. Set gamma explicitly to 'auto' or 'scale' to avoid this warning.
"avoid this warning.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/ensemble/forest.py:246: FutureWarning: The default value of n_estimators will change from 10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.
"10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/model_selection/_split.py:2179: FutureWarning: From version 0.21, test_size will always complement train_size unless both are specified.
FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/svm/base.py:196: FutureWarning: The default value of gamma will change from 'auto' to 'scale' in version 0.22 to account better for unscaled features. Set gamma explicitly to 'auto' or 'scale' to avoid this warning.
"avoid this warning.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/ensemble/forest.py:246: FutureWarning: The default value of n_estimators will change from 10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.
"10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/model_selection/_split.py:2179: FutureWarning: From version 0.21, test_size will always complement train_size unless both are specified.
FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/svm/base.py:196: FutureWarning: The default value of gamma will change from 'auto' to 'scale' in version 0.22 to account better for unscaled features. Set gamma explicitly to 'auto' or 'scale' to avoid this warning.
"avoid this warning.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/ensemble/forest.py:246: FutureWarning: The default value of n_estimators will change from 10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.
"10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/model_selection/_split.py:2179: FutureWarning: From version 0.21, test_size will always complement train_size unless both are specified.
FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/svm/base.py:196: FutureWarning: The default value of gamma will change from 'auto' to 'scale' in version 0.22 to account better for unscaled features. Set gamma explicitly to 'auto' or 'scale' to avoid this warning.
"avoid this warning.", FutureWarning)
/Users/rob/miniconda3/envs/py3.6/lib/python3.6/site-packages/sklearn/ensemble/forest.py:246: FutureWarning: The default value of n_estimators will change from 10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.
"10 in version 0.20 to 100 in 0.22.", FutureWarning)

In [73]:
fig, axes = plt.subplots(1, len(classifiers), figsize=(12, 3))

for m, Classifier in enumerate(classifiers):
axes[m].plot(train_size_vec, cm_diags[2, :, m], label=iris.target_names[2])
axes[m].plot(train_size_vec, cm_diags[1, :, m], label=iris.target_names[1])
axes[m].plot(train_size_vec, cm_diags[0, :, m], label=iris.target_names[0])
axes[m].set_title(type(Classifier()).__name__)
axes[m].set_ylim(0, 1.1)
axes[m].set_xlim(0.1, 0.9)
axes[m].set_ylabel("classification accuracy")
axes[m].set_xlabel("training size ratio")
axes[m].legend(loc=4)

fig.tight_layout()
fig.savefig("ch15-classification-comparison.pdf")


Clustering¶

In [74]:
X, y = iris.data, iris.target

In [75]:
np.random.seed(123)

In [76]:
n_clusters = 3

In [77]:
c = cluster.KMeans(n_clusters=n_clusters)

In [78]:
c.fit(X)

Out[78]:
KMeans(algorithm='auto', copy_x=True, init='k-means++', max_iter=300,
n_clusters=3, n_init=10, n_jobs=None, precompute_distances='auto',
random_state=None, tol=0.0001, verbose=0)
In [79]:
y_pred = c.predict(X)

In [80]:
y_pred[::8]

Out[80]:
array([1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
dtype=int32)
In [81]:
y[::8]

Out[81]:
array([0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2])
In [82]:
idx_0, idx_1, idx_2 = (np.where(y_pred == n) for n in range(3))

In [83]:
y_pred[idx_0], y_pred[idx_1], y_pred[idx_2] = 2, 0, 1

In [84]:
y_pred[::8]

Out[84]:
array([0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2],
dtype=int32)
In [85]:
metrics.confusion_matrix(y, y_pred)

Out[85]:
array([[50,  0,  0],
[ 0, 48,  2],
[ 0, 14, 36]])
In [86]:
N = X.shape[1]

fig, axes = plt.subplots(N, N, figsize=(12, 12), sharex=True, sharey=True)

colors = ["coral", "blue", "green"]
markers = ["^", "v", "o"]
for m in range(N):
for n in range(N):
for p in range(n_clusters):
marker=markers[p], s=30,
color=colors[p], alpha=0.25)

for idx in np.where(y != y_pred):
axes[m, n].scatter(X[idx, m], X[idx, n],
marker="s", s=30,
edgecolor="red",
facecolor=(1,1,1,0))

axes[N-1, m].set_xlabel(iris.feature_names[m], fontsize=16)
axes[m, 0].set_ylabel(iris.feature_names[m], fontsize=16)
fig.tight_layout()
fig.savefig("ch15-clustering.pdf")


Versions¶

In [87]:
%reload_ext version_information

In [88]:
%version_information sklearn, numpy, matplotlib, seaborn

Out[88]:
SoftwareVersion
Python3.6.8 64bit [GCC 4.2.1 Compatible Clang 4.0.1 (tags/RELEASE_401/final)]
IPython7.5.0
OSDarwin 18.2.0 x86_64 i386 64bit
sklearn0.20.3
numpy1.16.3
matplotlib3.0.3
seaborn0.9.0
Mon May 06 15:44:47 2019 JST